The Diamonds, unique in their flawlessness, sought to expand their perfection across the galaxy.
|—Garnet, "Your Mother and Mine"|
Description & Influence
The Great Diamond Authority has complete control over every Gem and the Gem race's endeavors. Each Diamond seems to be responsible for overseeing a specific part of Homeworld society. The Diamonds appear to split up Gems into groups; some Gems belong to Yellow Diamond, others to Blue Diamond and (presumably) others to White Diamond. Gems wear a colored Diamond emblem on their outfit corresponding to the Diamond they serve.
In order to expand the Gem race the Diamonds take control of planets for colonization purposes. Each Diamond owns specific colonies and are in charge of making sure it is successful; for example, Pink Diamond owned Earth.
Most Gems are very loyal and legitimately believe that the Diamonds are the most elite beings to ever exist. Some members are passionate and enthusiastic about working for a Diamond; Peridot once exclaimed "I'll never forsake the Gem I was made for!" and Holly Blue Agate openly spoke of Blue and Yellow Diamond's greatness.
The loyalty Gems have for their Diamonds is such that some will do anything to avenge them. In addition to being widely regarded as a tragedy, Pink Diamond's "death" had incited some Gems, notably Jasper and "Eyeball" to seek vengeance on her behalf.
Gems must show absolute respect and loyalty to any Diamond they interact with regardless of whether they serve them or not. Appropriate behaviors include calling the Diamond a Gem serves "[their] Diamond", saluting a Diamond and optionally giving them many gracious titles before speaking with them.
The symbol of the Great Diamond Authority appears on many Gem structures and has changed over time. On structures mostly built before the Rebellion it consists of four diamond shapes: white (top), yellow (left), blue (right) and pink (bottom). On modern structures and the partially-healed Centipeetle's drawings seen in "Monster Reunion" the Pink Diamond symbol has been removed leaving only the white, yellow and blue symbol shapes (now depicted in the form of overlapping triangles; it was also depicted as three diamond shapes in Centipeetle's drawing). In addition to appearing on structures the redesigned symbol appears on the interiors of every modern Gem ship.
The exact history of the Diamonds is unknown. However, what is known is that the Diamonds are considered the most perfect and absolutely flawless Gems and it can be assumed this is how they rose to power. When the Great Diamond Authority was formed the Diamonds created many rules and constructed Gem society to be what it is today. The Diamonds created a hierarchy stating some Gems are better and receive more privileges than others. In order keep the system intact fusion between two or more different types of Gems was not allowed. This prevented two or more lower-class Gems from fusing and altogether becoming a different Gem higher up in the system. In addition, the Diamonds divided Gems into groups; some belonged to White, some belonged to Yellow, etc. All Gems are required to wear a uniform with a Diamond insignia on it to signify the Diamond they belong to.
The Diamonds also appear to be in charge of different aspects of Homeworld and as such chose to divide Gems into different groups for the purpose of carrying out any related duties; Yellow Diamond is in charge of Homeworld's military and Blue Diamond is in charge of Homeworld's diplomacy. Based on the murals in the Moon Base, White Diamond existed first, then Yellow, then Blue and finally Pink.
According to Garnet the Diamonds wished to spread their "perfection" throughout the universe and expand the Gem race into a greater empire. To do this the Diamonds colonized other worlds, using their resources to create new Gems and outposts. Worlds colonized ranged from planets to moons and asteroids. When Gems are created on a certain Diamond's planet they belong by default to that Diamond. For example, Gems made on a Yellow Diamond colony belong to her.
Eventually, a new Diamond was created: Pink Diamond. The other Diamonds had Pink observe them performing their jobs until they deemed her ready to be in charge of a colony of her own. Pink had begged Yellow and Blue for a colony until they had finally given her Earth. Around the time Earth's colonization began the Diamonds had colonized 43 planetary bodies and two star systems (according to the Moon Base).
Over 6,000 Years Ago
Pink and her Gems arrived on Earth and began colonizing the planet. When Pink became fascinated by the organic life that lived there she created a human zoo to preserve human life under the pretense of collecting "trophies" from her conquest of the planet, and eventually called Yellow and Blue to inform them the colony could not be completed in an attempt to spare the lives of billions. When the other Diamonds would not listen Pink created an alter-ego named Rose Quartz through shape-shifting and started a Gem uprising alongside her Pearl. Only Pink and Pearl knew Pink Diamond and Rose Quartz were the same Gem.
Over 5,750 Years Ago
At Earth's Moon Base Pink told the other Diamonds once more they could not colonize Earth and this time it was because of the Crystal Gems and their rebellion. Blue Diamond became irritated by Pink's excuses and explained that Rose Quartz could not hurt her and she could not halt the progress of a single colony due to a few rebellious Gems. Blue explained all Pink had to do was smile and wave while her Gems completed the Earth's colonization and the superior forces of Homeworld would make sure the Crystal Gems were no more.
To help out Pink, Blue sent her court to the Cloud Arena to investigate the Crystal Gem rebellion. Among these Gems was a Sapphire who came to Blue and told her she foresaw the rebels attacking the Cloud Arena, but that they would be cornered and captured after "poofing" two of the Rubies protecting her along with their charge and ending the rebellion. As told, Rose and Pearl attacked Blue Diamond's court and everything played out according to Sapphire's prophecy until one of Sapphire's Ruby guards saved her from Pearl causing them to accidentally fuse into Garnet. Disgusted and distracted by the fusion, Blue Diamond told Ruby she would be "shattered" for fusing with a member of her court and allowing the rebels to escape. Despite Ruby's protests, a distraught Sapphire fled with her into the Earth's wilderness where they again came across Rose and Pearl, this time joining the Rebellion they had fought against as Garnet.
Over 5,500 Years Ago
Under her Rose Quartz disguise, Pink Diamond recruited enough Gems to her cause to officially wage a war against Homeworld. Gems were shattered in the ensuing battles and any plans of colonizing Earth began to crumble. Pink Diamond was able to keep the Crystal Gems in contention with Homeworld's forces due to her healing abilities.
Over 5,000 Years Ago
Pink Diamond no longer wanted to be a part of the Great Diamond Authority and had believed that the other Diamonds did not care for her. Pink used her natural abilities to turn ordinary dirt into false pink Gem Shards and consumed them. She then had Pearl shape-shift into Rose and "shatter" her with a sword in public causing everyone (including the other Diamonds) to believe Rose Quartz had shattered Pink Diamond. When Pink poofed the shards she consumed fell to the ground to make the attack more believable. Now that Pink was presumed dead she could reform and live the rest of her life as Rose Quartz. Unfortunately, this would turn out to be a massive and devastating error in judgement on Pink's part, especially considering the nigh-endless chaos that followed...
It became clear to Homeworld that Earth was no longer fit to be a colony. Presumably under Yellow Diamond, loyal Gems began collecting fallen shards of the Crystal Gems and experimented with them by forcing them to fuse. After enough numerous experimentations the Cluster was created and embedded into the Earth's crust to one day destroy it and be used as a planet-destroying weapon.
Over 4,500 Years Ago
Homeworld Gems were instructed to evacuate Earth. Out of rage that Pink Diamond was shattered and her colony failed, the Diamonds combined their powers and launched the Corrupting Light at Earth. Both Homeworld and Crystal Gems who were exposed to the light became "corrupted". The Diamonds and Homeworld left Earth and only a few Crystal Gems survived the attack. Now that Pink Diamond was no longer around, the Diamonds divided her Gems amongst themselves; some went to Yellow, some went to Blue, etc.
Due to putting a lot of their resources into colonizing Earth and not receiving a great enough profit as well as having some of their technology destroyed, Homeworld's resources began to dwindle. This period of time that continues on in the present day is known as Era 2. When Era 2 began, Blue and Pink Diamond's Quartzes made on Earth took over Pink Diamond's zoo in her memory.
Pink Diamond continued to live on as Rose Quartz with the other Crystal Gems. They continued to protect the Earth and desperately tried to heal the Corrupted Gems. She eventually fell in love with a human named Greg Universe and gave up her physical form to have a son named Steven.
As the years went on the Diamonds continued colonizing worlds and Pink's "death" affected each of them. While it is unknown how White Diamond was affected, Blue went into a deep depression and would constantly mourn over Pink and Yellow tried pushing Pink out of her memory in order to keep herself a composed leader. Yellow tried having many discussions with Blue about how they should move on from Pink, but Blue never listened.
Yellow Diamond wished to know how the Cluster was progressing inside of the Earth. She assigned one of her Peridots to check the Cluster's status. When Peridot discovered there were Gems still on Earth, Yellow Diamond assigned a veteran Jasper to protect her when she visited the planet and presumably also a wayward Lapis Lazuli to serve as an informant.
Steven and the Crystal Gems were able to thwart their plans but Peridot managed to receive the information for Yellow Diamond acknowledging that the Cluster Gems were emerging as scheduled and the Cluster itself would be emerging shortly to destroy the Earth. Since the Crystal Gems destroyed her ship, Peridot found herself stranded and tried to contact Yellow Diamond through the Communication Hub but there was never a response. Eventually, Peridot came into contact with the Diamond Communicator and contacted Yellow Diamond that way, allowing herself to talk to her directly.
Peridot reported the Cluster would emerge shortly which Yellow Diamond found pleasing. However, due to being swayed by the Crystal Gems, Peridot requested they terminate the Cluster because it would mean sacrificing all of the Earth's resources for a single weapon. Peridot reports she devised a plan to use the Earth's resources without disrupting the organic life but Yellow Diamond does not care to hear her out. Because of this, Peridot insults Yellow Diamond and becomes an ally to the Crystal Gems. After the call ends Yellow Diamond attempts to destroy Peridot by remotely detonating the communicator.
Blue Diamond visits Earth, specifically at the location where Pink Diamond was allegedly shattered believing it is the last time she will get to visit the planet before the Cluster destroys it. Steven tracks down her location with his father Greg when he begins having dreams where he sees through her eyes and cries her tears. When they arrive Greg reveals himself to Blue Pearl, who takes him to Blue Diamond. While crying, Blue Diamond explains her confusion that a fragile race such as humans could thrive on Earth but on the same world a Diamond could be shattered. Greg offers Blue his condolences and explains he also lost someone and understands how she feels (the two don't realize they are mourning over the same person). Touched by Greg's sympathy, Blue Diamond kidnaps him to take him to Pink Diamond's Zoo believing she is sparing him from the Cluster, undoubtedly unaware of its nullification a considerable duration of time prior to her visit.
At the Zoo, Blue Diamond enters Pink's room and begins crying. Yellow comes in and is visibly annoyed, telling Blue she should shatter all of Pink's Rose Quartz gems because she was supposedly shattered by one of them, but Blue wishes to preserve all of Pink's gems and her legacy as a whole. Yellow Diamond, her Pearl and Blue Pearl sing in an attempt to make Blue feel better. They tell Blue that for the good of the Gem empire she has to move on and become a strong leader instead of moping around all of time. When the Crystal Gems came to infiltrate the Zoo in order to save Greg, they told the Gems working there that they were dropping off Steven for the Zoo as a special delivery for Blue Diamond. The administrator of the Zoo, Holly Blue Agate, brought Sapphire to Blue Diamond and told her that she foresaw her wanting more humans for the Zoo. Blue Diamond believes Sapphire, saying that the window to preserve the Earth's inhabitants is closing due to the Cluster. Yellow realizes that is what Blue wants, and when she discovers that the Cluster hasn't emerged yet, she tells Blue that there is still more time to collect humans.
When Peridot first discovered there were Gems still on Earth, Steven listed off some of his human friends which Peridot reported to Yellow Diamond. Using this list Yellow and Blue sent two elite Gems, Aquamarine and Topaz to Earth to retrieve them. In order to save his friends, Steven turns himself in as Rose Quartz, the Gem that was believed to have shattered Pink Diamond.
Topaz and Aquamarine takes Steven to Homeworld where he is put on trial in front of Yellow and Blue for the murder of Pink. Yellow wishes to just get the trial over with so Steven could be shattered, but Blue wants to hear him out. Steven tries to explain what happened, even though he has no idea, which only makes Blue upset when he gets facts wrong. Steven's lawyer explains witnesses said Pink had stepped out of her palanquin when Rose attacked her from the front, but that does not make any sense because Rose Quartz wouldn't be able to get past all of Pink's guards. She states that only someone of supreme authority could meet with Pink personally, and blames Pink's murder on one of the Diamonds. Furious, Yellow poofs both of the Zircons. Blue yells at Yellow, asking her to restrain herself. While they are distracted, Steven escapes on Blue Diamond's palanquin, and Yellow warns her that he is on their world now. Once Steven is safe, Yellow sends Shattering Robonoids to find and execute him.
Yellow Diamond is one of the Diamond matriarchs. She is the former superior of Peridot, and also the current superior to countless other Gems made for her. She commenced the Cluster project to acquire it as a geo-weapon after the Earth was deemed unfit to be a colony due to the rise of the Crystal Gems.
According to Peridot in "Hit the Diamond", Yellow Diamond is responsible for Homeworld's military.
- Yellow Pearl
- Jasper (originally Pink Diamond's subordinate)
- Prosecuting Zircon
- Nephrite-XJ Cut-763
- Hessonite (Save the Light)
- Squaridot (Save the Light)
- Jungle Moon's planet
- Multiple Asteroid Mines
- 2 star systems and 18 unknown planetary bodies in total (by the time of Earth's colonization)
One of the Diamond matriarchs. She was the superior of Ruby and Sapphire, and many other Gems made for her. Her subordinates used to have a large blue diamond on their bodies, but now they have a similar design to Yellow Diamond's subordinates, with a small light Blue Diamond insignia on their chests in two symmetrically connecting diagonal dark lines.
- Blue Pearl
- Holly Blue Agate
- Unknown court members
- Other Rubies
- Several former subordinates of Pink Diamond
- Defending Zircon (alignment unknown)
- 9 unknown planetary bodies (by the time of Earth's colonization)
One of the Diamond leaders. Details about her are unknown except her white symbol that appears alongside those representing Blue Diamond and Yellow Diamond on both ancient and modern Gem structures. Her name and only acknowledgment so far was stated in the book Steven Universe: Art & Origins.
- 28 planetary bodies (by the time of Earth's colonization)
Pink Diamond was a former member of the Great Diamond Authority. When she was a recently created Gem, she begged the other Diamonds for a colony until she was finally given one, the Earth. Once the colonization of Earth began, Pink became fascinated by the organic life that lived on the planet. In an attempt to preserve human life, she created the human zoo, and later decided that she did not want to go through with completing the colony. Pink came up with multiple excuses to the other Diamonds as to why they could not continue colonizing Earth, but they would not listen. Eventually, Pink created an alter-ego named Rose Quartz by shape-shifting. As Rose, Pink and her Pearl rallied up enough Gems who felt how she felt, and started the Rebellion.
As Rose, Pink and her fellow rebels would fight for Earth's freedom, and then Pink would shape-shift back and continue being a Diamond. Pink then used the Crystal Gems as another excuse to why they couldn't colonize Earth, but the other Diamonds still would not listen. She eventually decided that she wanted to leave her life as a Diamond behind and live as Rose Quartz forever on Earth with the Crystal Gems and humans. Pink Diamond crushed dirt and turned it into pink shards which she then ate. She then had Pearl shape-shift into Rose Quartz and then poof her in public, leaving shards behind. Everyone who witnessed the event believed that Rose Quartz shattered Pink Diamond, and only Pink and her Pearl knew the truth. Pink then reformed as Rose Quartz and led the Crystal Gems to victory.
Pink Diamond's "death" has affected Gems in many different ways. Some Gems, like the Diamonds, and those who served her, like Jasper and Eyeball, continue to mourn her and show animosity towards Rose, not knowing they are the same person. Others, like the defending Zircon, try to make sense of what happened to Pink. Zircon questions how a Rose Quartz - a Gem type identified as a threat and put out of service - was able to slip past Pink Diamond's guards and members of her entourage in the first place.
- Pink Diamond's Gems
- Unknown Quartzes
Many Era 2 Gems appear to be largely unaware of the Rebellion, evidenced by Peridot's ignorance of the Crystal Gems in "Marble Madness". This suggests that events about Pink Diamond's death are not frequently discussed, which may be indicative of the devotion and respect Gems have for the Diamonds.
- Main article: The Great Diamond Authority/Transportation
|1. "Gem Glow":||Absent||14. "Lars and the Cool Kids":||Absent|
|2. "Laser Light Cannon":||Absent||15. "Onion Trade":||Absent|
|3. "Cheeseburger Backpack":||Absent||16. "Steven the Sword Fighter":||Absent|
|4. "Together Breakfast":||Absent||17. "Lion 2: The Movie":||Absent|
|5. "Frybo":||Absent||18. "Beach Party":||Absent|
|6. "Cat Fingers":||Absent||19. "Rose's Room":||Absent|
|7. "Bubble Buddies":||Absent||20. "Coach Steven":||Absent|
|8. "Serious Steven":||Pictured||21. "Joking Victim":||Absent|
|9. "Tiger Millionaire":||Absent||22. "Steven and the Stevens":||Absent|
|10. "Steven's Lion":||Absent||23. "Monster Buddies":||Absent|
|11. "Arcade Mania":||Absent||24. "An Indirect Kiss":||Absent|
|12. "Giant Woman":||Absent||25. "Mirror Gem":||Absent|
|13. "So Many Birthdays":||Absent||26. "Ocean Gem":||Absent|
|27. "House Guest":||Absent||40. "On the Run":||Absent|
|28. "Space Race":||Absent||41. "Horror Club":||Absent|
|29. "Secret Team":||Absent||42. "Winter Forecast":||Absent|
|30. "Island Adventure":||Absent||43. "Maximum Capacity":||Absent|
|31. "Keep Beach City Weird":||Mentioned||44. "Marble Madness":||Absent|
|32. "Fusion Cuisine":||Absent||45. "Rose's Scabbard":||Absent|
|33. "Garnet's Universe":||Absent||46. "Open Book":||Absent|
|34. "Watermelon Steven":||Absent||47. "Shirt Club":||Absent|
|35. "Lion 3: Straight to Video":||Absent||48. "Story for Steven":||Absent|
|36. "Warp Tour":||Absent||49. "The Message":||Absent|
|37. "Alone Together":||Absent||50. "Political Power":||Absent|
|38. "The Test":||Absent||51. "The Return":||Mentioned|
|39. "Future Vision":||Absent||52. "Jail Break":||Pictured|
|1. "Full Disclosure":||Absent||14. "Historical Friction":||Absent|
|2. "Joy Ride":||Absent||15. "Friend Ship":||Pictured|
|3. "Say Uncle":||Absent||16. "Nightmare Hospital":||Absent|
|4. "Love Letters":||Absent||17. "Sadie's Song":||Absent|
|5. "Reformed":||Absent||18. "Catch and Release":||Mentioned|
|6. "Sworn to the Sword":||Pictured||19. "When It Rains":||Absent|
|7. "Rising Tides, Crashing Skies":||Absent||20. "Back to the Barn":||Absent|
|8. "Keeping It Together":||Absent||21. "Too Far":||Absent|
|9. "We Need to Talk":||Absent||22. "The Answer":||Flashback|
|10. "Chille Tid":||Absent||23. "Steven's Birthday":||Absent|
|11. "Cry for Help":||Mentioned||24. "It Could've Been Great":||Pictured & Mentioned|
|12. "Keystone Motel":||Absent||25. "Message Received":||Appears|
|13. "Onion Friend":||Absent||26. "Log Date 7 15 2":||Mentioned|
|1. "Super Watermelon Island":||Absent||13. "Kiki's Pizza Delivery Service":||Absent|
|2. "Gem Drill":||Absent||14. "Monster Reunion":||Mentioned|
|3. "Same Old World":||Absent||15. "Alone at Sea":||Absent|
|4. "Barn Mates":||Mentioned||16. "Greg the Babysitter":||Absent|
|5. "Hit the Diamond":||Mentioned||17. "Gem Hunt":||Absent|
|6. "Steven Floats":||Absent||18. "Crack the Whip":||Absent|
|7. "Drop Beat Dad":||Absent||19. "Steven vs. Amethyst":||Absent|
|8. "Mr. Greg":||Absent||20/21. "Bismuth":||Mentioned|
|9. "Too Short to Ride":||Absent||22. "Beta":||Absent|
|10. "The New Lars":||Absent||23. "Earthlings":||Mentioned|
|11. "Beach City Drift":||Absent||24. "Back to the Moon":||Pictured & Mentioned|
|12. "Restaurant Wars":||Absent||25. "Bubbled":||Mentioned|
|1. "Kindergarten Kid":||Absent||14. "The Zoo":||Absent|
|2. "Know Your Fusion":||Absent||15. "That Will Be All":||Appears|
|3. "Buddy's Book":||Absent||16. "The New Crystal Gems":||Absent|
|4. "Mindful Education":||Absent||17. "Storm in the Room":||Mentioned|
|5. "Future Boy Zoltron":||Absent||18. "Rocknaldo":||Absent|
|6. "Last One Out of Beach City":||Absent||19. "Tiger Philanthropist":||Absent|
|7. "Onion Gang":||Absent||20. "Room for Ruby":||Absent|
|8/9. "Gem Harvest":||Absent||21. Lion 4: Alternate Ending":||Absent|
|10. "Three Gems and a Baby":||Absent||22. "Doug Out":||Mentioned|
|11. "Steven's Dream":||Appears||23. "The Good Lars":||Absent|
|12. "Adventures in Light Distortion":||Absent||24. "Are You My Dad?":||Mentioned|
|13. "Gem Heist":||Mentioned||25. "I Am My Mom":||Mentioned|
|1. "Stuck Together":||Mentioned||14. "The Big Show":||Absent|
|2. "The Trial":||Appears||15. "Pool Hopping":||Absent|
|3. "Off Colors":||Mentioned||16. "Letters to Lars":||Absent|
|4. "Lars' Head":||Absent||17. "Can't Go Back":||Flashback|
|5. "Dewey Wins":||Mentioned||18. "A Single Pale Rose":||Flashback|
|6. "Gemcation":||Mentioned||19. "TBA":||Absent|
|7. "Raising the Barn":||Mentioned||20. "TBA":||Absent|
|8. "Back to the Kindergarten":||Absent||21. "TBA":||Absent|
|9. "Sadie Killer":||Absent||22. "TBA":||Absent|
|10. "Kevin Party":||Absent||23. "TBA":||Absent|
|11. "Lars of the Stars":||Absent||24. "TBA":||Absent|
|12. "Jungle Moon":||Flashback||25. "TBA":||Absent|
|13. "Your Mother and Mine":||Flashback||26. "TBA":||Absent|
- The confirmed instrument of the diamonds is a synthetic sound combining harmonette and strings, processed by a synth, this can also be heard in "Same Old World" and "Monster Reunion" when the Corrupting Light flashes. It was revealed in the Steven Universe: Art & Origins book that each Diamond also has a unique chord.
- The current symbol might be a reference to the Triforce symbol from The Legend of Zelda, as they both are three connecting triangles that form a symbol. It also bears a resemblance to the Mitsu uroko emblem of the Hōjō clan.
- The former symbol resembles the NFPA 704 diamond symbol, with slightly different colors (one of the diamonds is red instead of pink) and with the colors' positions switched.
- The former symbol's order of colors seems to represent the location of the gem in the body of its owner: both Blue and Yellow Diamond have their gem in their chests, so they are equal in position in the middle row, whereas White Diamond has her gem in her forehead and Pink Diamond has it in the lowest position in her navel, hence in the symbol White Diamond is on the top and Pink Diamond is on the bottom.
- It also reflects the size of the Diamonds, as White Diamond is the largest, Pink Diamond is the smallest, and both Yellow and Blue Diamond are equal in size.
- The Great Diamond Authority is yet another of Ronaldo's paranormal theories that have been proven to be true.
- It is revealed in "Monster Reunion" that the Diamonds were the ones responsible for the corruption of almost all remaining Gems on Earth.
- Centipeetle drew the original Great Diamond Authority symbol without the lowermost diamond when she was asked who or what caused the damage to her and the other Corrupted Gems, implying Pink Diamond was not involved with this attack. This is confirmed in "Your Mother and Mine".
- The circles placed behind the heads of the Diamonds in their murals resemble halos, a common motif in the sacred art of Ancient Greece, Ancient Rome, Hinduism, Buddhism, Islam, and Christianity. Combined with the epithets the prosecuting Zircon uses for Yellow Diamond, it appears light is extremely relevant in their iconography.
- So far, White Diamond is the only Diamond that has not been mentioned by the characters in the entire series, being only depicted in an indirect way.
- Although Gems usually serve under a specific diamond, Blue and Yellow Diamond seem to have the same amount of authority over each other's subordinates. For example, Yellow Diamond tells Holly Blue to "Get to the point!" in "That Will Be All", she also poofs Blue Diamond's defending Zircon in "The Trial" and Emerald's uniform shows both Yellow and Blue Diamond insignias in "Lars of the Stars".